There are three primary dispute settlement mechanisms that are included in NAFTA. Chapter 20 is the resolution mechanism from one country to another. It is often considered the least controversial of the three mechanisms and was maintained in the USMCA in its original NAFTA form. Such cases would involve complaints between USMCA member states for violation of a provision of the agreement.  Chapter 19 deals with the justification of anti-dumping or countervailing duties. Without Chapter 19, the remedy for the management of these policies would be through the national legal system. Chapter 19 provides that a USMCA body hears the case and acts as the international commercial court in mediating the dispute.  The Trump administration has attempted to remove Chapter 19 of the new USMCA text, although it has been maintained so far in the agreement. On June 1, 2020, the USTR Robert Lighthizer office unblocked the Uniform Rules, the last hurdle before the agreement was implemented on July 1, 2020.
The text of the agreement is available here: ustr.gov/trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements/united-states-mexico-canada-agreement/uniform-regulations An April 2019 analysis by the International Trade Commission on the likely effects of the USMCA estimated that the agreement, if fully implemented (six years after ratification), would increase the real GDP of the United States by 0.35% and increase the United States. Total employment of 0.12% (176,000 jobs).   The analysis cited in another Congressional Research Service study showed that the agreement would not have a measurable impact on employment, wages, or overall economic growth.  In the summer of 2019, Larry Kudlow (the director of the National Economic Council of the Trump White House) made unfounded allegations about the likely economic impact of the deal and exaggerated forecasts in terms of jobs and GDP growth.  A new addition to the USMCA is the inclusion of Chapter 33, which deals with macroeconomic policies and exchange rate issues. This is considered important, as it could set a precedent for future trade agreements.  Chapter 33 sets out monetary and macroeconomic transparency requirements that, if violated, would create a remedy under Chapter 20.  The United States, Canada and Mexico currently meet all of these transparency requirements, in addition to the substantive political requirements that are consistent with the articles of the International Monetary Fund Convention.
 In addition to the provisions of the original NAFTA agreement, the USMCA draws heavily on the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreements and the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). On 3 April 2020, Mexico announced its readiness to implement and accede to the agreement.  The agreement entered into force on 1 July 2020.     The USMCA updates and replaces the 25-year-old North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Work on the new agreement lasted several years, had to be approved by both houses of Congress and required the three countries to attest to their compliance with different measures in the agreement. The certifications were finalized at the beginning of this year, which allowed the entry into force of the agreement. The USMCA rules will apply as of July 1, 2020. Here`s a look at the sections of the USMCA that impact the FDA: 30 Robert E. Lighthizer, the U.S. Trade Representative, presented to Congress a draft statement on administrative measures relating to the implementation of the US-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA and the new NAFTA) pursuant to the Presidential Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) Act 2015. The project will submit USMCA enforcement legislation to Congress after 30 days, or after June 29.
In a letter  to Nancy Pelosi, spokeswoman for the House of Representatives, and Kevin McCarthy, the minority leader of the House of Representatives, Lighthizer stated that the USMCA was the gold standard in the United States. . . .